Listed on this page is the complete reference list used on this project.

Below you will find the reference list as listed throughout the project as explained and referenced.

  1. Cherubini A, Moretti G, Vertechy R, Fontana M. Experimental characterization of thermally-activated artificial muscles based on coiled nylon fishing lines. AIP Advances. 2015;5(6):067158. doi:10.1063/1.4923315
  2. Haines CS, Li N, Spinks GM, Aliev AE, Di J, Baughman RH. New twist on artificial muscles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2016;113(42):11709–11716. doi:10.1073/pnas.1605273113
  3. Haines CS, Lima MD, Li N, Spinks GM, Foroughi J, Madden JDW, Kim SH, Fang S, Jung de Andrade M, Goktepe F, et al. Artificial Muscles from Fishing Line and Sewing Thread. Science. 2014;343(6173):868–872. doi:10.1126/science.1246906
  4. Madden JDW, Kianzad S. Twisted Lines : Artificial muscle and advanced instruments can be formed from nylon threads and fabric. IEEE Pulse. 2015;6(1):32–35. doi:10.1109/MPUL.2014.2366896
  5. Mirfakhrai T, Madden JDW, Baughman RH. Polymer artificial muscles. Materials Today. 2007;10(4):30–38. doi:10.1016/S1369-7021(07)70048-2
  6. Simeonov A, Henderson T, Lan Z, Sundar G, Factor A, Zhang J, Yip M. Bundled Super-Coiled Polymer Artificial Muscles: Design, Characterization, and Modeling. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters. 2018;3(3):1671–1678. doi:10.1109/LRA.2018.2801469
  7. WriterOfMinds: Nylon Fishing Line Artificial Muscle Knowledge Compendium. WriterOfMinds. [accessed 2019 Oct 17].
  8. Zhang J, Simeonov A, Yip MC. Three-dimensional hysteresis compensation enhances accuracy of robotic artificial muscles. Smart Materials and Structures. 2018;27(3):035002. doi:10.1088/1361-665X/aaa690


Not all references that are used in writing and explaining a project are used, and some of the references used say the same thing as other references. Some end up not pertaining to the research at all. Some started out as pertaining to the research only to not be needed later on as research progress and ideas are discarded.

Below is a list of the references that were gathered and used to move the project forward, but not used in the writing of the paper or poster or web copy that you have come across before by me.